Song Dynasty

Chinese Empresses

Northern Song (960-1127) and Southern Song (1127-1279). An era of significant economic and social changes: the monetization of the economy; growth in commerce and maritime trade; urban expansion and technological innovations. The examination system for bureaucratic recruitment of neo-Confucianism was to provide the intellectual underpinning for the political and social order of the late imperial period.

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Northern Song (Early Period)

Empress Gao

Empress Gao

Empress Cao

Empress Cao

Empress Guo

Empress Guo

Empress Liu, Empress Guo, Princess Pan, Consort Li

Empress Liu, Empress Guo, Princess Pan, Consort Li

Northern Song (End Period)

Empress Zhu

Empress Zhu

Empress Wang, Empress Zheng

Empress Wang, Empress Zheng

Empress Meng, Empress Liu

Empress Meng, Empress Liu

Southern Song

Empress Xing, Empress Wu

Empress Xing, Empress Wu

Empress Guo, Empress Xia, Empress Xia

Empress Guo, Empress Xia, Empress Xie

Li Fengxiang (Empress Ciyi)

Li Fengxiang

Empress Han, Empress Yang

Empress Han, Empress Yang

Xie Daoqing

Xie Daoqing

Empress Quan

Empress Quan