Yuan Dynasty



Budashiri, born around 1307 and dying circa 1340, was the Empress of China and Khatun of Mongols, married to Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür. A member of the Khongirad clan, she became empress in 1328 and wielded significant power, notably exiling Toghon Temür to Goryeo and orchestrating the execution of his stepmother, Babusha. Upon Tugh Temür’s death in 1332, Budashiri took up the mantle of regency. Initially, under the influence of grand councilor El Temür, she appointed Rinchinbal as emperor, who passed away after just fifty-three days. Resisting pressures to elevate her own son, El Tegüs, she installed the 13-year-old Toghon Temür as emperor in 1333. Though she governed as regent for over seven years, by 1340, Toghon Temür sought redress for past wrongs, resulting in Budashiri’s titles being stripped, her exile, and subsequent execution at approximately age 33.

Spouse: Emperor Wenzong of Yuan


Jayaatu Khan, also known as Emperor Wenzong of Yuan, was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty of China and the 12th Khagan of the Mongol Empire, although his rule was nominal due to the division of the empire. He ruled twice, initially from October 16, 1328, to February 26, 1329, when he abdicated in favor of his brother Kusala (Emperor Mingzong), and then again from September 8, 1329, to September 2, 1332, following Kusala’s death. Tugh Temür restored the line of Khayishan to the throne with the support of his father’s loyal partisans but persecuted his eldest brother Kusala’s family, later expressing remorse for his actions. Despite his brief reign, he sponsored cultural activities, including poetry, painting, and reading Chinese classical texts. Tugh Temür’s administration was largely in the hands of powerful ministers, such as El Temür of the Qipchaq and Bayan of the Merkid, who played crucial roles in his succession struggle in 1328.

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