Yuan Dynasty



Babukhan was the wife of the Taiding Emperor of the Yuan dynasty and briefly served as regent in 1328. Daughter to either Woliuchar or Maizhuhan, both descendants of Anchen, she was appointed empress in 1324. However, after her husband’s death in Shangdu four years later, her son, Ragibagh, ascended to the throne as Tianshun with Babukhan ruling as his regent under the title of empress dowager. Shortly after, a coup was staged by the minister El Temür in Dadu, and he installed Tugh Temür, a son of Emperor Külüg Khan, as the new emperor. The fate of Tianshun remains unclear, but Babukhan and the other women from Taiding’s court were taken into El Temür’s harem. She was never given a posthumous title, as Tugh Temür did not recognize her as a legitimate empress.

Spouse: Emperor Taiding Emperor of Yuan


Yesün Temür, a great-grandson of Kublai Khan, served as the emperor of the Yuan dynasty of China from 1323 to 1328. While holding the title of Emperor of China, he is considered the 10th Khagan of the Mongol Empire, although this was largely nominal due to the division of the empire. Known for his fondness for traditional Mongol ways, Yesün Temür is commonly referred to as the Taiding Emperor of Yuan based on his first era name. His Mongolian name means “nine iron.” The Franciscan friar Odoric likely visited him, providing a detailed account of his travels in Chinese historiography. Yesün Temür passed away on August 15, 1328.

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