Eastern Jin dynasty


He Fani (Empress Muzhang)

Empress He Fani (何法倪) (339–404), formally Empress Muzhang (穆章皇后, literally “the solemn and polite empress”), semi-formally Empress Yong’an (永安皇后), was an empress of Jin. Her husband was Emperor Mu.

He Fani’s father He Zhun (何準) was a brother of the one-time prime minister He Chong (何充), who was an important official during the reigns of Emperor Cheng, Emperor Kang, and Emperor Mu. He Zhun had already died by 357, when, based on the account of her high birth, He Fani was selected to be the empress. (Because her father was already deceased, the edict was issued to her father’s cousin He Qi (何琦), as the head of the household.) Emperor Mu was 14 and she was 18.Emperor Mu did not have any sons, with Empress He or anyone else. After he died in 361, he was succeeded by his cousin Emperor Ai, and Empress He was not given the title of empress dowager but instead was honored as Empress Mu. As she was given Yong’an Palace (永安宮) as her residence, she also became known as Empress Yong’an.

Spouse: Emperor Mu of Jin


Emperor Mu of Jin, born Sima Dan, was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. His reign spanned 17 years, but most of this period was during his childhood, with actual power held by figures such as his mother Empress Chu Suanzi, He Chong, his granduncle Sima Yu the Prince of Kuaiji, Yin Hao, and Huan Wen. Despite his limited personal rule, Jin’s territory experienced temporary expansion to its greatest extent since the fall of northern China to Han-Zhao during Emperor Mu’s reign. This expansion resulted from Huan Wen’s destruction of Cheng-Han and the addition of its territory to Jin’s domain. The collapse of Later Zhao also enabled Jin to regain most of the territory south of the Yellow River during this period.

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