qing dynasty

Empress Xiaoduanwen


Jerjer (1599–1649), of the Khorchin Mongol Borjigit clan, was the consort and later empress consort of Hong Taiji, the Qing emperor. Born in 1599 during the Wanli era, Jerjer married Hong Taiji in 1614 and became one of his multiple wives. In 1623, she was elevated to the position of the second primary consort. Jerjer played a significant role in Hong Taiji’s life, giving birth to several daughters. In 1636, during the Chongde era, Hong Taiji conferred the title of empress on Jerjer. After Hong Taiji’s death in 1643, Jerjer, now known as Empress Dowager, was honored as “Mother Empress” by the Shunzhi Emperor, Hong Taiji’s successor. She passed away on 28 May 1649 and was posthumously honored with the title “Empress Xiaoduanwen,” with her burial in the Zhao Mausoleum.

Spouse: Emperor Hong Taiji


Hong Taiji (1592–1643), also known as Huang Taiji, Abahai in Western literature, and posthumously as Emperor Taizong of Qing, was the second khan of the Later Jin dynasty (1626–1636) and the founding emperor of the Qing dynasty (1636–1643). Hong Taiji played a crucial role in consolidating the empire established by his father, Nurhaci, and laid the foundation for the eventual conquest of the Ming dynasty, although he passed away before witnessing its completion. His reign saw significant changes, including the renaming of the Jurchen ethnicity to “Manchu” in 1635 and the transformation of the dynasty’s name from “Great Jin” to “Great Qing” in 1636. The Qing dynasty continued to rule China until its downfall in 1912.

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