Northern Song Dynasty

Princess Pan

Princess Pan (潘王妃) (968–989) was the first wife of the future Emperor Zhenzong of Song in imperial China’s Song Dynasty. They married in 984 when he was still the Prince of Han (韓王), and she was given the title “Lady of Ju” (莒国夫人). She was posthumously honoured as Empress Zhanghuai (章懷皇后) after her husband became the emperor in 998.

She was the second daughter and eighth child of the Song general Pan Mei.

Northern Song Dynasty

Empress Guo (Zhenzong)

Empress Guo (975–1007) was a Chinese empress consort of the Song Dynasty, married to Emperor Zhenzong of Song.

She became the primary consort of Zhezong in 991, in a marriage arranged by his father the emperor. The marriage produced no children. She became his empress consort when he succeeded to the throne in 997.

Northern Song Dynasty

Empress Liu (Zhenzong)

Empress Zhangxian Mingsu (章獻明肅皇后; lit. “The orderly, worthy, wise and solemn empress”), more commonly known as Empress Liu (劉皇后), was an empress of the Song dynasty, married to the Emperor Zhenzong in 1012 and quickly gained the emperor’s trust to discuss government matters. She ruled unofficially as the regent of China during the illness of Emperor Zhenzong from 1020 until 1022, and then officially as regent during the minority of Emperor Renzong from 1022 until her own death in 1033. As a regent, she commanded in her own name, not the name of the young emperor, she became the second woman in Chinese history to wear the imperial robe, after Wu Zetian, the only empress regnant in Chinese history.

Northern Song Dynasty

Consort Li

Consort Li, imperial consort rank Chenfei (Chinese: 李宸妃; lit. ‘Consort Li of the Palace’) (987 – 1032), was an imperial consort of the Song dynasty of China. She was a concubine of Emperor Zhenzong and the mother of Emperor Renzong. She was posthumously honored as Empress Dowager Zhangyi (章懿皇太后), after Emperor Renzong discovered that she was his real mother.

Spouse: Emperor Zhezong of Song

Emperor Zhenzong of Song, born Zhao Heng, was the third emperor of the Song dynasty in China, reigning from 997 until his death in 1022. Originally named Zhao Dechang, he underwent several name changes before adopting Zhao Heng in 995. The third son of Emperor Taizong, he was succeeded by his sixth son, Emperor Renzong. During his reign, Emperor Zhenzong faced health challenges, with a severe illness leading to the delegation of day-to-day governance to his third wife, Empress Liu, from 1020 onwards. Despite his health struggles, he retained political power until his death in 1022.

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